In Sep. 2013, Beijing Huashi decided to design and build a bench scale experimental unit associating with the R&D institution, and on the basis of MCT theoretical research, in Sanju Fuda Fertilizer & Catalyst National Engineering Research Center (Hereinafter referred to as “Sanju Fuda”).
Fig.1 The bench scale experimental unit
After finishing designing the experimental scheme, dedicated catalysts were used regarding to certain types of inlet raw material, and the experiment was carried out in parallel several times with varying (one of the) reaction parameters. A large number of experimental data was obtained. Further in-depth research and analysation of these data provided deeper research results, which pointed out the direction of the design and development of the pilot plant.
Key Results Obtained
1. Research on the performance of different catalysts, mainly focused on the catalysts with size less than 5 μm. The appropriate inlet raw-catalyst ratio was found for different catalyst. Successfully located and figured the performance of the active functional group of hydrotreating, and established an infinitesimal reactor theory system.
2. Carried out the research on the coking substance adsorption performance of the catalyst in suspended bed. Observed the percentage conversion, coking status of the reactor etc. through modifying the catalyst’s pore volume, specific surface area. Several new suspended-bed-dedicated catalysts were developed which can effectively avoid the polymerization of coking precursor such as colloid and asphaltene base on these observations.
3. Research on the bed formed by catalysts with different size distribution. Through measuring and calculating parameters such as bed density, size of the bubble, gas holdups, solid concentration etc., a new reaction system was developed, which is called “three phase well-mixed bedless infinitesimal reaction system”. This system is capable of pushing the reaction rate towards its theoretical limit as far as possible, therefore maximized the catalysts’ reactivity, mixing rate, disperse performance, and reaction space usage efficiency.
4. Research on the change pattern of the percentage conversion regarding to the reaction temperature. The appropriate reaction temperature of different inlet materials was found ranged 430~450 ℃. Obtained the change pattern of the reaction rate of different inlet raw regarding to different heating rate (℃/min), and located the reaction-rate -sensitive temperature range.
5. Obtained the mass balance of different inlet raw under different reaction condition, and carried out in-depth research on the products to optimize the production route of the MCT process.
6. Research on the change pattern of the percentage conversion regarding to the reaction pressure. The appropriate reaction pressure of upgrading heavy-oil was found ranged 18~25 Mpa.
7. Construct the reaction model of the suspended bed hydrotreating process on the basis of the product yield under different reaction condition associating with the thermalcracking and hydrocracking model.
8. Through the analysation of the coking substance of different inlet raw, the coking features in hydrogen environment were obtained, along with a theoretical coking avoiding scheme involving usage of appropriate catalyst and operating condition.
9. Research on the percentage conversion regarding to the different contact time and optimized the process accordingly.